↓ Skip to main content

Frontiers

Article Metrics

A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability

Overview of attention for article published in Frontiers in Psychology, September 2014
Altmetric Badge

About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (93rd percentile)

Mentioned by

news
4 news outlets
blogs
1 blog
twitter
31 tweeters
facebook
12 Facebook pages
q&a
1 Q&A thread

Citations

dimensions_citation
818 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
1763 Mendeley
citeulike
1 CiteULike
Title
A healthy heart is not a metronome: an integrative review of the heart's anatomy and heart rate variability
Published in
Frontiers in Psychology, September 2014
DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01040
Pubmed ID
Authors

Fred Shaffer, Rollin McCraty, Christopher L. Zerr

Abstract

Heart rate variability (HRV), the change in the time intervals between adjacent heartbeats, is an emergent property of interdependent regulatory systems that operate on different time scales to adapt to challenges and achieve optimal performance. This article briefly reviews neural regulation of the heart, and its basic anatomy, the cardiac cycle, and the sinoatrial and atrioventricular pacemakers. The cardiovascular regulation center in the medulla integrates sensory information and input from higher brain centers, and afferent cardiovascular system inputs to adjust heart rate and blood pressure via sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent pathways. This article reviews sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart, and examines the interpretation of HRV and the association between reduced HRV, risk of disease and mortality, and the loss of regulatory capacity. This article also discusses the intrinsic cardiac nervous system and the heart-brain connection, through which afferent information can influence activity in the subcortical and frontocortical areas, and motor cortex. It also considers new perspectives on the putative underlying physiological mechanisms and properties of the ultra-low-frequency (ULF), very-low-frequency (VLF), low-frequency (LF), and high-frequency (HF) bands. Additionally, it reviews the most common time and frequency domain measurements as well as standardized data collection protocols. In its final section, this article integrates Porges' polyvagal theory, Thayer and colleagues' neurovisceral integration model, Lehrer et al.'s resonance frequency model, and the Institute of HeartMath's coherence model. The authors conclude that a coherent heart is not a metronome because its rhythms are characterized by both complexity and stability over longer time scales. Future research should expand understanding of how the heart and its intrinsic nervous system influence the brain.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 31 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 1,763 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United States 12 <1%
Germany 3 <1%
Netherlands 3 <1%
Poland 2 <1%
Brazil 2 <1%
Switzerland 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
India 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Other 5 <1%
Unknown 1732 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 318 18%
Student > Ph. D. Student 262 15%
Student > Bachelor 231 13%
Researcher 178 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 113 6%
Other 298 17%
Unknown 363 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Psychology 308 17%
Medicine and Dentistry 268 15%
Engineering 147 8%
Neuroscience 109 6%
Sports and Recreations 103 6%
Other 372 21%
Unknown 456 26%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 67. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 06 October 2022.
All research outputs
#521,603
of 22,412,863 outputs
Outputs from Frontiers in Psychology
#1,044
of 28,629 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#5,632
of 225,595 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Frontiers in Psychology
#24
of 373 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 22,412,863 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 28,629 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 12.6. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 225,595 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 373 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.